The MUGA scan (Multiple Gated Acquisition scan) is an extremely useful noninvasive tool for assessing the function of the heart when information on blood flow to the heart muscle is not required.  The MUGA scan produces a moving image of the beating heart, and from this image several important features can be determined about the health of the cardiac

Treadmill Stress Test

The treadmill stress test is just that, a stress test entirely done on the treadmill.  Patients are hooked up to an EKG machine for evaluation under exercise conditions. EKG abnormalities relative to cardiac problems can present themselves under exercise or “stress” conditions.

The level of mechanical stress is progressively increased by adjusting the difficulty (steepness of the slope) and speed.

Nuclear Stress Test

The main clinical examination performed in nuclear cardiology is Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (also known as a Nuclear Stress Test). During a nuclear stress test, a small amount of radioactive tracer is injected intravenously. Two injections are administered: under rest conditions and under stress conditions. Stress conditions are obtained by use of treadmill exercise or medications that simulate the effects


In this procedure, a rotary shaver (also called a “burr”) is placed at the tip of a catheter, guided to the affected area, and used to remove plaque from the artery walls. In some cases, a laser catheter is used to vaporize the plaque.

Balloon Valvuloplasty

Balloon valvuloplasty, also called balloon valvotomy, is used to repair narrow or constricted heart valves that do not open properly (e.g., aortic stenosis). In this procedure, a balloon at the tip of the catheter is inflated to stretch the valve open.

Percutaneous Valve Repair

The human heart has four valves that control the way blood flows through heart chambers. Interventional cardiologists can use catheters to guide clips or other devices through the blood vessels to a damaged valve. These devices can then be used to repair the valve to allow blood to flow properly again.

Embolic Protection

The word “embolic” comes from the word “embolus,” which refers to an abnormal particle flowing with the blood.

During interventional cardiology procedures, plaque fragments can become loose, travel through the bloodstream, and increase the risk for injury or stroke.

Embolic protection devices, often called “filters,” can be used to trap these particles.


Approximately 70 percent of angioplasty procedures also involve stenting, which is the insertion of a small metal cylinder called a stent into a blood vessel. In this procedure, a collapsed stent is placed over the balloon at the tip of the catheter. When the balloon inflates, the stent pops open and reinforces the artery walls. The balloon and catheter

Angioplasty/Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Coronary angioplasty, also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is used to open arteries that have been narrowed by atherosclerosis.

In this procedure, a catheter is entered into a blood vessel through an incision (usually in the leg or wrist) and is threaded to the heart. This catheter has a collapsed balloon at its tip.

When the balloon reaches the targeted area

Cardiac Catheterization

Cardiac catheterization is often used to help doctors determine the severity and extent of cardiovascular problems. The cardiologist makes a small incision in the arm or groin and threads a catheter into a blood vessel. The catheter is then guided through the blood vessel to the heart.

With this procedure physicians can:

analyze the location and size of plaque deposits
assess the

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